Dry Farming in Humboldt

A small region along the Eel River in Humboldt County allows cultivators to grow cannabis without ever watering their plants.
Dry Farming
Chrystal Ortiz beams with pride amidst her cannabis plants. Photos by Claire Weissbluth, @la_osa

Dry farms are rare in California, but the results people like Chrystal Ortiz of High Water Farm are able to pull off without watering their cannabis plants all summer are pretty amazing. Sure it takes a Goldilocks type of microclimate in the middle of Humboldt County just off the Eel River—the same neighborhood that hosts all the state’s dry cannabis farmers—but what those farmers are able to do is pretty impressive. It is certainly a leap of faith to start. Ortiz described the trauma of her first season trying dry farming as she watched the plants wilt before they adjusted to their new life on the dry farm, but it worked out. These days she pumps a lot of the product coming out of High Water Farm in bulk. She estimated about 70% percent of her product goes to brands that will use the flower to fill their jars, and the rest goes to hash companies. Dry-farmed cannabis has crazy terpene profiles that make for great hash.

Ortiz also holds back enough product to make sure she has enough cannabis to run great half-ounce deals at her shop, Herb & Market Humboldt in Arcata, which she runs when she isn’t splitting farm duties with her husband Noah Beck.

“We’ve had great weather so far,” Ortiz told High Times of the 2023 season. “We started super late because the field was wet pretty late. And so we didn’t get the plants in the ground until a week after [summer] solstice.”

Moisture retention in dry cannabis farming is critical, but for young plants too much moisture can still lead to a lot of issues. This year, Humboldt’s rainy winter led to the latest start at High Water Farm since they started dry farming in 2018.

High Times Magazine, November 2023

How Dry Farming Works

The field, the quality of its soil, and the local microclimate all play a massive role in what is happening at High Water Farm.

Ortiz explained that dry farming is ideal in their area because the undisturbed redwood trees hold the water table, or the layer of water underneath the soil, in place.

“When you come in from the coast and you get to the very first Avenue of the Giants exit, you get just past the fog bank,” Ortiz said. “And then you’ve got old-growth redwoods that are like holding the water table. That’s really what I think is happening between the river and the old-growth redwoods on the Giants. They’re keeping water in the water table. So the fir isn’t drinking them all up like everywhere else where there’s been so much heavy logging, and we get that 20 to 30 degrees warmer than the coast. Yet, we’re still like 10 to 15 degrees cooler than Garberville.”

Every day the sun heats the soil, releasing stored up moisture from the night before and the morning fog. That moisture travels up through the roots and hydrates the plant, which keeps the soil ridiculously soft. 

First, the soil is prepped in the winter. It will need to hold all the nutrients that the cannabis plants will require to get through the season since they won’t be getting watered. One of the things in Ortiz’s favor is that the property is on an old alfalfa farm. Alfalfa is popular as a cover crop to help improve soil quality for cannabis farmers that plant straight into the soil. Ortiz and Beck grow alfalfa in the winter and then till it into the soil in the spring to help the soil hold nitrogen. They also use goats to eat the cover crops, and their droppings get tilled back into the already awesome soil.

Why is the soil at High Water Farm so dope? Essentially the same thing happens on the Nile River in Egypt, where every now and then a big flood deposits a massive layer of silt along the banks, a lot of the silt that washed down rivers in Humboldt includes sawdust from logging operations and mills. The last big flood in 1964 left a 10- to 15-foot layer of silt along the Eel River’s shores where the farm sits.

Ortiz said while they don’t find many rocks when they prepare the field each spring, old branches from past floods seem to work their way back up through the soil. They’ve taken to building little shrines with redwood branches that they discover around the farm.

The silt, in addition to the alfalfa-eating goats, is the backbone of the farm’s plant nutrition profile. 

“It’s just this kind of little Goldilocks zone where the river meanders through and it’s coming out just about sea level. We’re almost at sea level and so [the river is] coming out to the mouth pretty soon and it’s just swift and cold,” Ortiz said.

Chrystal Ortiz of High Water Farm

Always Improving

Every year there is still room for improvement. This year features some new hardware from one of the neighbors, a transplanter tool, that made getting the plants in the ground a cinch.

“It was even crazier than usual where we have our plants and little foragers and we shook all the dirt off and had them bare root exposed,” Ortiz said. “We just pulled the transplanter behind and dropped the plants in the trowel, and they planted. We planted the whole 20,000 square feet in less than six hours.”

When planting they will mix a little a handful of TerraVesco worm compost and some sort of good organic dry amendments. In the past they have also included Perfect Blend, Dr. Earth, or Royal Gold. Royal Gold has a new product called Crown Jewels that Ortiz used last year. After a little handful in the planting hole, and that’s it for the whole season. Ortiz estimates she only bought 10 or 12 small bags of amendments this year.

We asked what has changed the most about her mentality as she heads into her sixth season without any irrigation for her plants. She was quick to point to the deficiencies in the market that prevent her from going crazy with a bunch of different strains.

“The game has changed so much like trim, people need 200 pounds of one varietal,” Ortiz said. “We’ve really had to scale back on the excitement around a bunch of different flavors as weed smokers and realize we need to do what does really well in the dry farm.”

Checking out cannabis on the High Water Farm homestead.

A Rare Breed

Ortiz estimates there are about six permitted dry cannabis farms in the entire state, and they are all located on either side of the river in her neighborhood. Some of her dry-farming compatriots nearby include Sensiboldt as well as longtime farmers Rosie Reynolds and Beth Dunlap. Better known as Farmer Beth, Dunlap has been cultivating on her dad’s old farm for 38 years, it’s where she grew up.

These three farms—High Water Farm, Sensiboldt Organics, and Cann-Do Attitude—collaborate on the Dry Farm Cannabis brand together.

“And we put a lot of stuff out under Dry Farm Cannabis, we put pre-rolls out, we put jarred weed out, we put bulk weed out,” Ortiz said. “And so that’s kind of an exciting collab because then between the three of us we can vend directly to consumers at different events and stuff.”

Ortiz said part of the reason it’s exciting is because it’s just more fun and easier to not have to be out there tooting your own horn. You can make a space and share it and each rep for each other.

Neat rows of cannabis pull moisture from deep within the soil.

Holding Space for Small Farms & Saving Humboldt

After spending many years deep in the heart of Humboldt County politics as legal cannabis emerged, Ortiz now considers her main activism as the dispensary, Herb & Market Humboldt, where she holds space for those small farms trying to hold on.

“We don’t have a ton of customers. We’re not super busy. But you know, there’s also like 100 dispensaries in Humboldt County and it’s like selling sand at the beach,” Ortiz said. “But it is a space where farmers can learn. They can directly interact with consumers and see why their packaging doesn’t work. Why their labeling doesn’t work.”

Ortiz’s dispensary allows farmers to have an experience that’s really hard for them to get outside of the region in the protected environment Ortiz offers and then go do events in other places down south where the direct-to-consumer cash is.

“So they get to try it here and I see them. I see it work,” Ortiz emphasized.

While Ortiz has enjoyed helping out local cultivators, she expects things to ramp up politically over the coming months as Humboldt County looks like it will have a culture-shifting ballot initiative that could damn the county’s cannabis industry forever.

Humboldt’s cannabis farmers allege that the ballot initiative, currently labeled the Humboldt Cannabis Reform Initiative (HCRI), was written by NIMBYs in Kneeland, California that are anti-cannabis and are way behind the times in the county.

“They went into the community and they lied to the community to get enough signatures,” Ortiz alleged. “It was pro-cannabis for farms 10,000 square feet or below only and blah, blah, blah, and turns out that they got enough signatures to get it off the ballot through nefarious ways. And now [the ballot initiative] is a really poorly written, really devastating proposition that threatens every single legal farm in Humboldt County.”

One of the scariest things about the initiative is it would become statutory law that would require another election to change. Some of the bad ideas include banning additional structures on cannabis farms, so cultivators wouldn’t be able to make any changes such as installing water tanks or solar panels. Arguably the most devastating part of all would be that the initiative would only allow for one cultivation permit per person per parcel, affecting many people who have spent years building out onsite distribution or manufacturing. The initiative would ruin them and the county’s cannabis industry.

The HCRI ballot initiative is slated to appear on the March 2024 ballot. Ortiz went as far as to say that it will be the end of Humboldt County’s licensed cannabis industry if it passes. There are so few licensed farmers right now as so many have already gone out of business. Ortiz thinks it’s going to be hard to see how much compassion we have from the cannabis community about keeping farms alive. She plans to talk to other business owners and note that if they support HCRI there won’t be any cannabis dollars left to spend at their establishments, period.

This article was originally published in the November 2023 issue of High Times Magazine.

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